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3.5.0-SNAPSHOT

IO Reference

gremlin io2

IO features, capabilities and use cases are initially discussed in the Apache TinkerPop™ Reference Documentation. This document focuses more on the details of the implementations for both production and consumption of the various formats. It contains samples of the various formats and development details that provide deeper insight for their usage.

GraphML

gremlin graphml The GraphML file format is a common XML-based representation of a graph. It uses an edge list format where vertices and their properties are listed and edges and their properties are listed by referencing the in and out vertices for each edge. GraphML does support a number of features which are not implemented by TinkerPop (e.g. extending GraphML with custom types) and there are features of TinkerPop that are not supported by GraphML (e.g. meta-properties), but GraphML does represent the most universal way to consume or produce a graph for integration with other systems as GraphML tends to have fairly wide support.

In TinkerPop, GraphML is also not extended for purpose of serializing just any type (i.e. serialize just a Vertex to XML). It is only supported for a Graph instance.

The following example is a representation of the Modern toy graph in GraphML:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<graphml xmlns="http://graphml.graphdrawing.org/xmlns" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://graphml.graphdrawing.org/xmlns http://graphml.graphdrawing.org/xmlns/1.1/graphml.xsd">
  <key id="labelV" for="node" attr.name="labelV" attr.type="string" />
  <key id="name" for="node" attr.name="name" attr.type="string" />
  <key id="lang" for="node" attr.name="lang" attr.type="string" />
  <key id="age" for="node" attr.name="age" attr.type="int" />
  <key id="labelE" for="edge" attr.name="labelE" attr.type="string" />
  <key id="weight" for="edge" attr.name="weight" attr.type="double" />
  <graph id="G" edgedefault="directed">
    <node id="1">
      <data key="labelV">person</data>
      <data key="name">marko</data>
      <data key="age">29</data>
    </node>
    <node id="2">
      <data key="labelV">person</data>
      <data key="name">vadas</data>
      <data key="age">27</data>
    </node>
    <node id="3">
      <data key="labelV">software</data>
      <data key="name">lop</data>
      <data key="lang">java</data>
    </node>
    <node id="4">
      <data key="labelV">person</data>
      <data key="name">josh</data>
      <data key="age">32</data>
    </node>
    <node id="5">
      <data key="labelV">software</data>
      <data key="name">ripple</data>
      <data key="lang">java</data>
    </node>
    <node id="6">
      <data key="labelV">person</data>
      <data key="name">peter</data>
      <data key="age">35</data>
    </node>
    <edge id="7" source="1" target="2">
      <data key="labelE">knows</data>
      <data key="weight">0.5</data>
    </edge>
    <edge id="8" source="1" target="4">
      <data key="labelE">knows</data>
      <data key="weight">1.0</data>
    </edge>
    <edge id="9" source="1" target="3">
      <data key="labelE">created</data>
      <data key="weight">0.4</data>
    </edge>
    <edge id="10" source="4" target="5">
      <data key="labelE">created</data>
      <data key="weight">1.0</data>
    </edge>
    <edge id="11" source="4" target="3">
      <data key="labelE">created</data>
      <data key="weight">0.4</data>
    </edge>
    <edge id="12" source="6" target="3">
      <data key="labelE">created</data>
      <data key="weight">0.2</data>
    </edge>
  </graph>
</graphml>

Consider the following points when reading a GraphML file to TinkerPop that was generated outside of TinkerPop:

  • Supports the following values in attr.type:

    • string

    • float

    • double

    • int

    • long

    • boolean

  • Does not currently support the <default> tag in the schema definitions.

  • The GraphML will be read as a directed graph regardless of the value supplied edgedefault setting in the <graph> tag as that is the nature of the type of graph that TinkerPop supports.

  • The vertex and edge id values will always be treated as a String if the Graph instance consuming the data supports user-supplied identifiers (i.e. TinkerGraph).

  • By default the labels for vertex and edges are referred to as "labelV" and "labelE" respectively. It is possible to change these defaults on the Builder for the GraphReader. If no label is supplied, the reader will default to "vertex" and "edge" respectively as is the general expectation in TinkerPop when those values are omitted.

GraphSON

gremlin graphson GraphSON is a JSON-based format that is designed for human readable output that is easily supported in any programming language through the wide-array of JSON parsing libraries that exist on virtually all platforms. GraphSON is considered both a "graph" format and a generalized object serialization format. That characteristic makes it useful as a serialization format for Gremlin Server where arbitrary objects of varying types may be returned as results.

When considering GraphSON as a "graph" format, the relevant feature to consider is the writeGraph and readGraph methods on the GraphSONWriter and GraphSONReader interfaces, respectively. These methods write the entire Graph instance as output or read an entire Graph instance input and they do so in a way external to generalized object serialization. In other words, the output of:

final Graph graph = TinkerFactory.createModern();
final GraphWriter writer = graph.io(IoCore.graphson()).writer();
writer.writeGraph("tinkerpop-modern.json");

will be different of:

final Graph graph = TinkerFactory.createModern();
final GraphWriter writer = graph.io(IoCore.graphson()).writer();
final OutputStream os = new FileOutputStream("tinkerpop-modern.json");
writer.writeObject(os, graph);

Generalized object serialization will be discussed later in this section, so for now the focus will be on the "graph" format. Unlike GraphML, GraphSON does not use an edge list format. It uses an adjacency list. In the adjacency list, each vertex is essentially a line in the file and the vertex line contains a list of all the edges associated with that vertex. The GraphSON 3.0 representation looks like this for the Modern toy graph:

{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"label":"person","outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":9},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}}],"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":7},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":2},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.5}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":8},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":0},"value":"marko"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":1},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":29}}]}}
{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":2},"label":"person","inE":{"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":7},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.5}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":2},"value":"vadas"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":3},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":27}}]}}
{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"label":"software","inE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":9},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":11},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":12},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":6},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.2}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":4},"value":"lop"}],"lang":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":5},"value":"java"}]}}
{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"label":"person","inE":{"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":8},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":10},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":5},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":11},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":6},"value":"josh"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":7},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":32}}]}}
{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":5},"label":"software","inE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":10},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":8},"value":"ripple"}],"lang":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":9},"value":"java"}]}}
{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":6},"label":"person","outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":12},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.2}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":10},"value":"peter"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":11},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":35}}]}}

At a glance, one can see that this is not a valid JSON document. While that form may seem incorrect, there is a reason. The "graph" format is designed by default to be splittable, such that distributed systems like Spark can easily divide the GraphSON file for processing. If this data were represented as an "array of vertices" with square brackets at the beginning and end of the file, the format would be less conducive to fit that purpose. It is possible to change this behavior by building the GraphSONWriter with the wrapAdjacencyList setting set to true, in which case the output will be a valid JSON document that looks like this:

{ "vertices": [
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"label":"person","outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":9},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}}],"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":7},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":2},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.5}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":8},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":0},"value":"marko"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":1},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":29}}]}}
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":2},"label":"person","inE":{"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":7},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.5}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":2},"value":"vadas"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":3},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":27}}]}}
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"label":"software","inE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":9},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":11},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":12},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":6},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.2}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":4},"value":"lop"}],"lang":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":5},"value":"java"}]}}
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"label":"person","inE":{"knows":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":8},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":1},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":10},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":5},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}},{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":11},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.4}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":6},"value":"josh"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":7},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":32}}]}}
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":5},"label":"software","inE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":10},"outV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":4},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":1.0}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":8},"value":"ripple"}],"lang":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":9},"value":"java"}]}}
  {"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":6},"label":"person","outE":{"created":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":12},"inV":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":3},"properties":{"weight":{"@type":"g:Double","@value":0.2}}}]},"properties":{"name":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":10},"value":"peter"}],"age":[{"id":{"@type":"g:Int64","@value":11},"value":{"@type":"g:Int32","@value":35}}]}}
]}
Note
The writeGraph method essentially calls writeVertices with the directionality of BOTH. The writeVertices method simply calls writeVertex which detaches each Vertex instance into a directional StarGraph which forms the basis for the format.

The following sections discuss the GraphSON object serialization format as available in each version of GraphSON. Core to understanding these sections is to understand that GraphSON can be produced with and without types being embedded in the output. Without embedded types, the type system is restricted to standard JSON types of Object, List, String, Number, Boolean and that will lead to "lossyness" in the format (i.e. a float will be interpreted as double).

Version 1.0

Version 1.0 of GraphSON was released with TinkerPop 3.0.0. When types are embedded, GraphSON uses the standard Jackson type embedding approach that writes the full Java class name into a "@class" field in the JSON. While this approach isn’t especially language agnostic it does at least give some hint as to what the expected type is.

This section focuses on non-embedded types and their formats as there was little usage of embedded types in generalized object serialization use cases. The format was simply too cumbersome to parse of non-Jackson enabled libraries and the use cases for it were limited. GraphSON Version 2.0 attempts to improve upon this limitation.

Graph Structure

Edge

{
  "id" : 13,
  "label" : "develops",
  "type" : "edge",
  "inVLabel" : "software",
  "outVLabel" : "person",
  "inV" : 10,
  "outV" : 1,
  "properties" : {
    "since" : 2009
  }
}

Path

{
  "labels" : [ [ ], [ ], [ ] ],
  "objects" : [ {
    "id" : 1,
    "label" : "person",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 0,
        "value" : "marko"
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "id" : 6,
        "value" : "san diego",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 1997,
          "endTime" : 2001
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 7,
        "value" : "santa cruz",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2001,
          "endTime" : 2004
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 8,
        "value" : "brussels",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2004,
          "endTime" : 2005
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 9,
        "value" : "santa fe",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2005
        }
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 10,
    "label" : "software",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 4,
        "value" : "gremlin"
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 11,
    "label" : "software",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 5,
        "value" : "tinkergraph"
      } ]
    }
  } ]
}

Property

{
  "key" : "since",
  "value" : 2009
}

TinkerGraph

TinkerGraph has a custom serializer that is registered as part of the TinkerIoRegistry.

{
  "vertices" : [ {
    "id" : 1,
    "label" : "person",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 0,
        "value" : "marko"
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "id" : 6,
        "value" : "san diego",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 1997,
          "endTime" : 2001
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 7,
        "value" : "santa cruz",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2001,
          "endTime" : 2004
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 8,
        "value" : "brussels",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2004,
          "endTime" : 2005
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 9,
        "value" : "santa fe",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2005
        }
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 7,
    "label" : "person",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 1,
        "value" : "stephen"
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "id" : 10,
        "value" : "centreville",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 1990,
          "endTime" : 2000
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 11,
        "value" : "dulles",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2000,
          "endTime" : 2006
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 12,
        "value" : "purcellville",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2006
        }
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 8,
    "label" : "person",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 2,
        "value" : "matthias"
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "id" : 13,
        "value" : "bremen",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2004,
          "endTime" : 2007
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 14,
        "value" : "baltimore",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2007,
          "endTime" : 2011
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 15,
        "value" : "oakland",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2011,
          "endTime" : 2014
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 16,
        "value" : "seattle",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2014
        }
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 9,
    "label" : "person",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 3,
        "value" : "daniel"
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "id" : 17,
        "value" : "spremberg",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 1982,
          "endTime" : 2005
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 18,
        "value" : "kaiserslautern",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2005,
          "endTime" : 2009
        }
      }, {
        "id" : 19,
        "value" : "aachen",
        "properties" : {
          "startTime" : 2009
        }
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 10,
    "label" : "software",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 4,
        "value" : "gremlin"
      } ]
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 11,
    "label" : "software",
    "type" : "vertex",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "id" : 5,
        "value" : "tinkergraph"
      } ]
    }
  } ],
  "edges" : [ {
    "id" : 13,
    "label" : "develops",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 1,
    "properties" : {
      "since" : 2009
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 14,
    "label" : "develops",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 1,
    "properties" : {
      "since" : 2010
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 15,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 1,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 4
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 16,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 1,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 5
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 17,
    "label" : "develops",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 7,
    "properties" : {
      "since" : 2010
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 18,
    "label" : "develops",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 7,
    "properties" : {
      "since" : 2011
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 19,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 7,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 5
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 20,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 7,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 4
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 21,
    "label" : "develops",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 8,
    "properties" : {
      "since" : 2012
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 22,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 8,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 3
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 23,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 8,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 3
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 24,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 10,
    "outV" : 9,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 5
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 25,
    "label" : "uses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 9,
    "properties" : {
      "skill" : 3
    }
  }, {
    "id" : 26,
    "label" : "traverses",
    "type" : "edge",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "software",
    "inV" : 11,
    "outV" : 10
  } ]
}

Vertex

{
  "id" : 1,
  "label" : "person",
  "type" : "vertex",
  "properties" : {
    "name" : [ {
      "id" : 0,
      "value" : "marko"
    } ],
    "location" : [ {
      "id" : 6,
      "value" : "san diego",
      "properties" : {
        "startTime" : 1997,
        "endTime" : 2001
      }
    }, {
      "id" : 7,
      "value" : "santa cruz",
      "properties" : {
        "startTime" : 2001,
        "endTime" : 2004
      }
    }, {
      "id" : 8,
      "value" : "brussels",
      "properties" : {
        "startTime" : 2004,
        "endTime" : 2005
      }
    }, {
      "id" : 9,
      "value" : "santa fe",
      "properties" : {
        "startTime" : 2005
      }
    } ]
  }
}

VertexProperty

{
  "id" : 0,
  "value" : "marko",
  "label" : "name"
}

RequestMessage

Authentication Response

The following RequestMessage is an example of the response that should be made to a SASL-based authentication challenge.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "authentication",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "saslMechanism" : "PLAIN",
    "sasl" : "AHN0ZXBocGhlbgBwYXNzd29yZA=="
  }
}

Session Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple session request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "g.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "session" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : 1
    }
  }
}

Session Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a session request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "social.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "aliases" : {
      "g" : "social"
    },
    "session" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : 1
    }
  }
}

Session Close

The following RequestMessage is an example of a request to close a session.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "close",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "session" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
  }
}

Sessionless Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple sessionless request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "g.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : 1
    }
  }
}

Sessionless Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a sessionless request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "social.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "aliases" : {
      "g" : "social"
    },
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : 1
    }
  }
}

ResponseMessage

Authentication Challenge

When authentication is enabled, an initial request to the server will result in an authentication challenge. The typical response message will appear as follows, but handling it could be different dependending on the SASL implementation (e.g. multiple challenges may be requested in some cases, but not in the default provided by Gremlin Server).

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 407,
    "attributes" : { }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : null,
    "meta" : { }
  }
}

Standard Result

The following ResponseMessage is a typical example of the typical successful response Gremlin Server will return when returning results from a script.

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 200,
    "attributes" : { }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : [ {
      "id" : 1,
      "label" : "person",
      "type" : "vertex",
      "properties" : {
        "name" : [ {
          "id" : 0,
          "value" : "marko"
        } ],
        "location" : [ {
          "id" : 6,
          "value" : "san diego",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : 1997,
            "endTime" : 2001
          }
        }, {
          "id" : 7,
          "value" : "santa cruz",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : 2001,
            "endTime" : 2004
          }
        }, {
          "id" : 8,
          "value" : "brussels",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : 2004,
            "endTime" : 2005
          }
        }, {
          "id" : 9,
          "value" : "santa fe",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : 2005
          }
        } ]
      }
    } ],
    "meta" : { }
  }
}

Version 2.0

Version 2.0 of GraphSON was first introduced on TinkerPop 3.2.2. It was designed to be less tied to Jackson (a JVM library) and to be less lossy as it pertained to types. While the GraphSON 1.0 section focused on GraphSON without embedded types, GraphSON 2.0 will do the opposite as embedded types is the expected manner in which non-JVM languages will interact with TinkerPop.

With GraphSON 2.0, there are essentially two type formats:

  • A non-typed value which is assumed the type implied by JSON. These non-types are limited to String, Boolean, Map and Collection.

  • All other values are typed by way of a "complex object" that defines a @typeId and @value. The @typeId is composed of two parts: a namespace and a type name, in the format "namespace:typename". A namespace allows TinkerPop providers and users to categorize custom types that they may implement and avoid collision with existing TinkerPop types. By default, TinkerPop types will have the namespace "g" (or "gx" for "extended" types).

Core

Class

{
  "@type" : "g:Class",
  "@value" : "java.io.File"
}

Date

Representing a millisecond-precision offset from the unix epoch. In Java, it is simply Date.getTime().

{
  "@type" : "g:Date",
  "@value" : 1481750076295
}

Double

While the @value is expected to be a JSON number, it might also be a String of NaN, Infinity or -Infinity.

{
  "@type" : "g:Double",
  "@value" : 100.0
}

Float

{
  "@type" : "g:Float",
  "@value" : 100.0
}

Integer

{
  "@type" : "g:Int32",
  "@value" : 100
}

Long

{
  "@type" : "g:Int64",
  "@value" : 100
}

Timestamp

{
  "@type" : "g:Timestamp",
  "@value" : 1481750076295
}

UUID

{
  "@type" : "g:UUID",
  "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
}

Graph Structure

Edge

{
  "@type" : "g:Edge",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 13
    },
    "label" : "develops",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 10
    },
    "outV" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "properties" : {
      "since" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 2009
      }
    }
  }
}

Path

{
  "@type" : "g:Path",
  "@value" : {
    "labels" : [ [ ], [ ], [ ] ],
    "objects" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person"
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "label" : "software"
        "label" : "software",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 4
              },
              "value" : "gremlin",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 10
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "label" : "software"
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 5
              },
              "value" : "tinkergraph",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 11
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Property

{
  "@type" : "g:Property",
  "@value" : {
    "key" : "since",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 2009
    },
    "element" : {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 13
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

StarGraph

{
  "starVertex" : {
    "@type" : "g:Vertex",
    "@value" : {
      "id" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      },
      "label" : "person",
      "properties" : {
        "name" : [ {
          "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 0
            },
            "value" : "marko",
            "vertex" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1
            },
            "label" : "name"
          }
        } ],
        "location" : [ {
          "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 6
            },
            "value" : "san diego",
            "vertex" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1
            },
            "label" : "location",
            "properties" : {
              "startTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1997
              },
              "endTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2001
              }
            }
          }
        }, {
          "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 7
            },
            "value" : "santa cruz",
            "vertex" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1
            },
            "label" : "location",
            "properties" : {
              "startTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2001
              },
              "endTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2004
              }
            }
          }
        }, {
          "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 8
            },
            "value" : "brussels",
            "vertex" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1
            },
            "label" : "location",
            "properties" : {
              "startTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2004
              },
              "endTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2005
              }
            }
          }
        }, {
          "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 9
            },
            "value" : "santa fe",
            "vertex" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1
            },
            "label" : "location",
            "properties" : {
              "startTime" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2005
              }
            }
          }
        } ]
      }
    }
  }
}

TinkerGraph

TinkerGraph has a custom serializer that is registered as part of the TinkerIoRegistry.

{
  "@type" : "tinker:graph",
  "@value" : {
    "vertices" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "value" : "stephen",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 10
              },
              "value" : "centreville",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1990
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2000
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 11
              },
              "value" : "dulles",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2000
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2006
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 12
              },
              "value" : "purcellville",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2006
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 2
              },
              "value" : "matthias",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 13
              },
              "value" : "bremen",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2007
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 14
              },
              "value" : "baltimore",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2007
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2011
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 15
              },
              "value" : "oakland",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2011
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2014
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 16
              },
              "value" : "seattle",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2014
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 3
              },
              "value" : "daniel",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 17
              },
              "value" : "spremberg",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1982
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 18
              },
              "value" : "kaiserslautern",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2009
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 19
              },
              "value" : "aachen",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2009
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "label" : "software",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 4
              },
              "value" : "gremlin",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 10
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "label" : "software",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 5
              },
              "value" : "tinkergraph",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 11
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    } ],
    "edges" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 13
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2009
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 14
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2010
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 15
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 4
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 16
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 5
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 17
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2010
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 18
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2011
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 19
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 5
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 20
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 4
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 21
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2012
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 22
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 3
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 23
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 3
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 24
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 5
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 25
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 3
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 26
        },
        "label" : "traverses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "software",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Tree

{
  "@type" : "g:Tree",
  "@value" : [ {
    "key" : {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    },
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Tree",
      "@value" : [ {
        "key" : {
          "@type" : "g:Vertex",
          "@value" : {
            "id" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 10
            },
            "label" : "software",
            "properties" : {
              "name" : [ {
                "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
                "@value" : {
                  "id" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int64",
                    "@value" : 4
                  },
                  "value" : "gremlin",
                  "vertex" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 10
                  },
                  "label" : "name"
                }
              } ]
            }
          }
        },
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Tree",
          "@value" : [ {
            "key" : {
              "@type" : "g:Vertex",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 11
                },
                "label" : "software",
                "properties" : {
                  "name" : [ {
                    "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
                    "@value" : {
                      "id" : {
                        "@type" : "g:Int64",
                        "@value" : 5
                      },
                      "value" : "tinkergraph",
                      "vertex" : {
                        "@type" : "g:Int32",
                        "@value" : 11
                      },
                      "label" : "name"
                    }
                  } ]
                }
              }
            },
            "value" : {
              "@type" : "g:Tree",
              "@value" : [ ]
            }
          } ]
        }
      } ]
    }
  } ]
}

Vertex

{
  "@type" : "g:Vertex",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "label" : "person",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 0
          },
          "value" : "marko",
          "vertex" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "name"
        }
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 6
          },
          "value" : "san diego",
          "vertex" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1997
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2001
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          },
          "value" : "santa cruz",
          "vertex" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2001
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2004
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 8
          },
          "value" : "brussels",
          "vertex" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2004
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2005
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 9
          },
          "value" : "santa fe",
          "vertex" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2005
            }
          }
        }
      } ]
    }
  }
}

VertexProperty

{
  "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int64",
      "@value" : 0
    },
    "value" : "marko",
    "vertex" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "label" : "name"
  }
}

Graph Process

Barrier

{
  "@type" : "g:Barrier",
  "@value" : "normSack"
}

Binding

A "Binding" refers to a Bytecode.Binding.

{
  "@type" : "g:Binding",
  "@value" : {
    "key" : "x",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    }
  }
}

Bytecode

The following Bytecode example represents the traversal of g.V().hasLabel('person').out().in().tree(). Obviously the serialized Bytecode woudl be quite different for the endless variations of commands that could be used together in the Gremlin language.

{
  "@type" : "g:Bytecode",
  "@value" : {
    "step" : [ [ "V" ], [ "hasLabel", "person" ], [ "out" ], [ "in" ], [ "tree" ] ]
  }
}

Cardinality

{
  "@type" : "g:Cardinality",
  "@value" : "list"
}

Column

{
  "@type" : "g:Column",
  "@value" : "keys"
}

Direction

{
  "@type" : "g:Direction",
  "@value" : "OUT"
}

Operator

{
  "@type" : "g:Operator",
  "@value" : "sum"
}

Order

{
  "@type" : "g:Order",
  "@value" : "shuffle"
}

Pick

{
  "@type" : "g:Pick",
  "@value" : "any"
}

Pop

{
  "@type" : "g:Pop",
  "@value" : "all"
}

Lambda

{
  "@type" : "g:Lambda",
  "@value" : {
    "script" : "{ it.get() }",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "arguments" : 1
  }
}

Metrics

{
  "@type" : "g:Metrics",
  "@value" : {
    "dur" : {
      "@type" : "g:Double",
      "@value" : 100.0
    },
    "counts" : {
      "traverserCount" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int64",
        "@value" : 4
      },
      "elementCount" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int64",
        "@value" : 4
      }
    },
    "name" : "TinkerGraphStep(vertex,[~label.eq(person)])",
    "annotations" : {
      "percentDur" : {
        "@type" : "g:Double",
        "@value" : 25.0
      }
    },
    "id" : "7.0.0()",
    "metrics" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Metrics",
      "@value" : {
        "dur" : {
          "@type" : "g:Double",
          "@value" : 100.0
        },
        "counts" : {
          "traverserCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          },
          "elementCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          }
        },
        "name" : "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)",
        "annotations" : {
          "percentDur" : {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 25.0
          }
        },
        "id" : "3.0.0()"
      }
    } ]
  }
}

P

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "gt",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 0
    }
  }
}

P within

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "within",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    } ]
  }
}

P without

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "without",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 2
    } ]
  }
}

P and

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "and",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "gt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 0
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "lt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

P or

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "or",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "gt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 0
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "within",
        "value" : [ {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : -1
        }, {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : -10
        }, {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : -100
        } ]
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Scope

{
  "@type" : "g:Scope",
  "@value" : "local"
}

T

{
  "@type" : "g:T",
  "@value" : "label"
}

TextP

{
  "@type" : "g:TextP",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "containing",
    "value" : "ark"
  }
}

TraversalMetrics

{
  "@type" : "g:TraversalMetrics",
  "@value" : {
    "dur" : {
      "@type" : "g:Double",
      "@value" : 0.004
    },
    "metrics" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Metrics",
      "@value" : {
        "dur" : {
          "@type" : "g:Double",
          "@value" : 100.0
        },
        "counts" : {
          "traverserCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 4
          },
          "elementCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 4
          }
        },
        "name" : "TinkerGraphStep(vertex,[~label.eq(person)])",
        "annotations" : {
          "percentDur" : {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 25.0
          }
        },
        "id" : "7.0.0()"
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Metrics",
      "@value" : {
        "dur" : {
          "@type" : "g:Double",
          "@value" : 100.0
        },
        "counts" : {
          "traverserCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 13
          },
          "elementCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 13
          }
        },
        "name" : "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)",
        "annotations" : {
          "percentDur" : {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 25.0
          }
        },
        "id" : "2.0.0()"
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Metrics",
      "@value" : {
        "dur" : {
          "@type" : "g:Double",
          "@value" : 100.0
        },
        "counts" : {
          "traverserCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          },
          "elementCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          }
        },
        "name" : "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)",
        "annotations" : {
          "percentDur" : {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 25.0
          }
        },
        "id" : "3.0.0()"
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Metrics",
      "@value" : {
        "dur" : {
          "@type" : "g:Double",
          "@value" : 100.0
        },
        "counts" : {
          "traverserCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "elementCount" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 1
          }
        },
        "name" : "TreeStep",
        "annotations" : {
          "percentDur" : {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 25.0
          }
        },
        "id" : "4.0.0()"
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Traverser

{
  "@type" : "g:Traverser",
  "@value" : {
    "bulk" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int64",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

RequestMessage

Authentication Response

The following RequestMessage is an example of the response that should be made to a SASL-based authentication challenge.

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "authentication",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "saslMechanism" : "PLAIN",
    "sasl" : "AHN0ZXBocGhlbgBwYXNzd29yZA=="
  }
}

Session Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple session request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "g.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "session" : {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    },
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      }
    }
  }
}

Session Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a session request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "social.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "aliases" : {
      "g" : "social"
    },
    "session" : {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    },
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      }
    }
  }
}

Session Close

The following RequestMessage is an example of a request to close a session.

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "close",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "session" : {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    }
  }
}

Sessionless Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple sessionless request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "g.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      }
    }
  }
}

Sessionless Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a sessionless request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : {
    "@type" : "g:UUID",
    "@value" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397"
  },
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "gremlin" : "social.V(x)",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "aliases" : {
      "g" : "social"
    },
    "bindings" : {
      "x" : {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      }
    }
  }
}

ResponseMessage

Authentication Challenge

When authentication is enabled, an initial request to the server will result in an authentication challenge. The typical response message will appear as follows, but handling it could be different dependending on the SASL implementation (e.g. multiple challenges maybe requested in some cases, but not in the default provided by Gremlin Server).

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 407,
    "attributes" : { }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : null,
    "meta" : { }
  }
}

Standard Result

The following ResponseMessage is a typical example of the typical successful response Gremlin Server will return when returning results from a script.

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 200,
    "attributes" : { }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "vertex" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    } ],
    "meta" : { }
  }
}

Extended

Note that the "extended" types require the addition of the separate GraphSONXModuleV2d0 module as follows:

mapper = GraphSONMapper.build().
                        typeInfo(TypeInfo.PARTIAL_TYPES).
                        addCustomModule(GraphSONXModuleV2d0.build().create(false)).
                        version(GraphSONVersion.V2_0).create().createMapper()

BigDecimal

{
  "@type" : "gx:BigDecimal",
  "@value" : 123456789987654321123456789987654321
}

BigInteger

{
  "@type" : "gx:BigInteger",
  "@value" : 123456789987654321123456789987654321
}

Byte

{
  "@type" : "gx:Byte",
  "@value" : 1
}

ByteBuffer

{
  "@type" : "gx:ByteBuffer",
  "@value" : "c29tZSBieXRlcyBmb3IgeW91"
}

Char

{
  "@type" : "gx:Char",
  "@value" : "x"
}

Duration

The following example is a Duration of five days.

{
  "@type" : "gx:Duration",
  "@value" : "PT120H"
}

InetAddress

{
  "@type" : "gx:InetAddress",
  "@value" : "localhost"
}

Instant

{
  "@type" : "gx:Instant",
  "@value" : "2016-12-14T16:39:19.349Z"
}

LocalDate

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalDate",
  "@value" : "2016-01-01"
}

LocalDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalDateTime",
  "@value" : "2016-01-01T12:30"
}

LocalTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalTime",
  "@value" : "12:30:45"
}

MonthDay

{
  "@type" : "gx:MonthDay",
  "@value" : "--01-01"
}

OffsetDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:OffsetDateTime",
  "@value" : "2007-12-03T10:15:30+01:00"
}

OffsetTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:OffsetTime",
  "@value" : "10:15:30+01:00"
}

Period

The following example is a Period of one year, six months and fifteen days.

{
  "@type" : "gx:Period",
  "@value" : "P1Y6M15D"
}

Short

{
  "@type" : "gx:Int16",
  "@value" : 100
}

Year

The following example is of the Year "2016".

{
  "@type" : "gx:Year",
  "@value" : "2016"
}

YearMonth

The following example is a YearMonth of "June 2016"

{
  "@type" : "gx:YearMonth",
  "@value" : "2016-06"
}

ZonedDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:ZonedDateTime",
  "@value" : "2016-12-23T12:12:24.000000036+02:00[GMT+02:00]"
}

ZoneOffset

The following example is a ZoneOffset of three hours, six minutes, and nine seconds.

{
  "@type" : "gx:ZoneOffset",
  "@value" : "+03:06:09"
}

Version 3.0

Version 3.0 of GraphSON was first introduced on TinkerPop 3.3.0 and is the default format when not specified as of this version. It is quite similar to GraphSON 2.0 and in most cases will appear compatible to the eye, however there are some critical differences:

  • GraphSON 3.0 does not have an option to be typeless. Types are always embedded.

  • GraphSON 2.0 relied on JSON data types for collections like Map and List. In GraphSON 3.0, there is explicit typed support for Map, List and Set as Gremlin relies on those types in quite specific ways that are not directly compatible with the JSON definitions of those collections. In the case of List and Set, it was important to distinguish between the two and for Map it was necessary to have the ability to return Map instances that did not have String keys (e.g. g.V().out().groupCount()).

Core

Class

{
  "@type" : "g:Class",
  "@value" : "java.io.File"
}

Date

Representing a millisecond-precision offset from the unix epoch. In Java, it is simply Date.getTime().

{
  "@type" : "g:Date",
  "@value" : 1481750076295
}

Double

{
  "@type" : "g:Double",
  "@value" : 100.0
}

Float

{
  "@type" : "g:Float",
  "@value" : 100.0
}

Integer

{
  "@type" : "g:Int32",
  "@value" : 100
}

List

List is used to distinguish between different collection types as JSON is not explicit enough for all of Gremlin’s requirements.

{
  "@type" : "g:List",
  "@value" : [ {
    "@type" : "g:Int32",
    "@value" : 1
  }, "person", true ]
}

Long

{
  "@type" : "g:Int64",
  "@value" : 100
}

Map

Map is redefined so that to provide the ability to allow for non-String keys, which is not possible in JSON.

{
  "@type" : "g:Map",
  "@value" : [ {
    "@type" : "g:Date",
    "@value" : 1481750076295
  }, "red", {
    "@type" : "g:List",
    "@value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 2
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 3
    } ]
  }, {
    "@type" : "g:Date",
    "@value" : 1481750076295
  }, "test", {
    "@type" : "g:Int32",
    "@value" : 123
  } ]
}

Set

Allows a JSON collection to behave as a Set.

{
  "@type" : "g:Set",
  "@value" : [ {
    "@type" : "g:Int32",
    "@value" : 1
  }, "person", true ]
}

Timestamp

{
  "@type" : "g:Timestamp",
  "@value" : 1481750076295
}

UUID

{
  "@type" : "g:UUID",
  "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
}

Graph Structure

Edge

{
  "@type" : "g:Edge",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 13
    },
    "label" : "develops",
    "inVLabel" : "software",
    "outVLabel" : "person",
    "inV" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 10
    },
    "outV" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "properties" : {
      "since" : {
        "@type" : "g:Property",
        "@value" : {
          "key" : "since",
          "value" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 2009
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Path

{
  "@type" : "g:Path",
  "@value" : {
    "labels" : {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Set",
        "@value" : [ ]
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Set",
        "@value" : [ ]
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Set",
        "@value" : [ ]
      } ]
    },
    "objects" : {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Vertex",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "person"
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Vertex",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 10
          },
          "label" : "software"
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Vertex",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 11
          },
          "label" : "software"
        }
      } ]
    }
  }
}

Property

{
  "@type" : "g:Property",
  "@value" : {
    "key" : "since",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 2009
    }
  }
}

TinkerGraph

TinkerGraph has a custom serializer that is registered as part of the TinkerIoRegistry.

{
  "@type" : "tinker:graph",
  "@value" : {
    "vertices" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 1
              },
              "value" : "stephen",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 10
              },
              "value" : "centreville",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1990
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2000
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 11
              },
              "value" : "dulles",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2000
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2006
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 12
              },
              "value" : "purcellville",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2006
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 2
              },
              "value" : "matthias",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 13
              },
              "value" : "bremen",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2007
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 14
              },
              "value" : "baltimore",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2007
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2011
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 15
              },
              "value" : "oakland",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2011
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2014
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 16
              },
              "value" : "seattle",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2014
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 3
              },
              "value" : "daniel",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 17
              },
              "value" : "spremberg",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1982
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 18
              },
              "value" : "kaiserslautern",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2009
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 19
              },
              "value" : "aachen",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2009
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "label" : "software",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 4
              },
              "value" : "gremlin",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "label" : "software",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 5
              },
              "value" : "tinkergraph",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    } ],
    "edges" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 13
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "since",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2009
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 14
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "since",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2010
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 15
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 4
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 16
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 5
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 17
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "since",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2010
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 18
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "since",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2011
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 19
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 5
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 20
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 7
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 4
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 21
        },
        "label" : "develops",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "since" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "since",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 2012
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 22
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 3
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 23
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 8
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 3
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 24
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 5
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 25
        },
        "label" : "uses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "person",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 9
        },
        "properties" : {
          "skill" : {
            "@type" : "g:Property",
            "@value" : {
              "key" : "skill",
              "value" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int32",
                "@value" : 3
              }
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:Edge",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 26
        },
        "label" : "traverses",
        "inVLabel" : "software",
        "outVLabel" : "software",
        "inV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 11
        },
        "outV" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Vertex

{
  "@type" : "g:Vertex",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "label" : "person",
    "properties" : {
      "name" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 0
          },
          "value" : "marko",
          "label" : "name"
        }
      } ],
      "location" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 6
          },
          "value" : "san diego",
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 1997
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2001
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 7
          },
          "value" : "santa cruz",
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2001
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2004
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 8
          },
          "value" : "brussels",
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2004
            },
            "endTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2005
            }
          }
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int64",
            "@value" : 9
          },
          "value" : "santa fe",
          "label" : "location",
          "properties" : {
            "startTime" : {
              "@type" : "g:Int32",
              "@value" : 2005
            }
          }
        }
      } ]
    }
  }
}

VertexProperty

{
  "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
  "@value" : {
    "id" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int64",
      "@value" : 0
    },
    "value" : "marko",
    "label" : "name"
  }
}

Graph Process

Barrier

{
  "@type" : "g:Barrier",
  "@value" : "normSack"
}

Binding

A "Binding" refers to a Bytecode.Binding.

{
  "@type" : "g:Binding",
  "@value" : {
    "key" : "x",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 1
    }
  }
}

BulkSet

{
  "@type" : "g:BulkSet",
  "@value" : [ "marko", {
    "@type" : "g:Int64",
    "@value" : 1
  }, "josh", {
    "@type" : "g:Int64",
    "@value" : 2
  } ]
}

Bytecode

The following Bytecode example represents the traversal of g.V().hasLabel('person').out().in().tree(). Obviously the serialized Bytecode woudl be quite different for the endless variations of commands that could be used together in the Gremlin language.

{
  "@type" : "g:Bytecode",
  "@value" : {
    "step" : [ [ "V" ], [ "hasLabel", "person" ], [ "out" ], [ "in" ], [ "tree" ] ]
  }
}

Cardinality

{
  "@type" : "g:Cardinality",
  "@value" : "list"
}

Column

{
  "@type" : "g:Column",
  "@value" : "keys"
}

Direction

{
  "@type" : "g:Direction",
  "@value" : "OUT"
}

Operator

{
  "@type" : "g:Operator",
  "@value" : "sum"
}

Order

{
  "@type" : "g:Order",
  "@value" : "shuffle"
}

Pick

{
  "@type" : "g:Pick",
  "@value" : "any"
}

Pop

{
  "@type" : "g:Pop",
  "@value" : "all"
}

Pick

{
  "@type" : "g:Pick",
  "@value" : "any"
}

Lambda

{
  "@type" : "g:Lambda",
  "@value" : {
    "script" : "{ it.get() }",
    "language" : "gremlin-groovy",
    "arguments" : 1
  }
}

Metrics

{
  "@type" : "g:Metrics",
  "@value" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "dur", {
      "@type" : "g:Double",
      "@value" : 100.0
    }, "counts", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
        "@type" : "g:Int64",
        "@value" : 4
      }, "elementCount", {
        "@type" : "g:Int64",
        "@value" : 4
      } ]
    }, "name", "TinkerGraphStep(vertex,[~label.eq(person)])", "annotations", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
        "@type" : "g:Double",
        "@value" : 25.0
      } ]
    }, "id", "7.0.0()", "metrics", {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Metrics",
        "@value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Map",
          "@value" : [ "dur", {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 100.0
          }, "counts", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 7
            }, "elementCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 7
            } ]
          }, "name", "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)", "annotations", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
              "@type" : "g:Double",
              "@value" : 25.0
            } ]
          }, "id", "3.0.0()" ]
        }
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

P

P expects a single value of a List of values. There is special handling for List values when it comes to within, without, inside, outside and between. For inside, outside and between, the expectation is that the collection contain two objects (the rest will be ignored) and those two objects become the arguments to those methods. For within and without, these methods will accept an arbitrary number of objects in the collection.

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "gt",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int32",
      "@value" : 0
    }
  }
}

P within

Please see P for additional information on within.

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "within",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      } ]
    }
  }
}

P without

Please see P for additional information on within.

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "without",
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 2
      } ]
    }
  }
}

P and

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "and",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "gt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 0
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "lt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 10
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

P or

{
  "@type" : "g:P",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "or",
    "value" : [ {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "gt",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 0
        }
      }
    }, {
      "@type" : "g:P",
      "@value" : {
        "predicate" : "within",
        "value" : {
          "@type" : "g:List",
          "@value" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : -1
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : -10
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : -100
          } ]
        }
      }
    } ]
  }
}

Scope

{
  "@type" : "g:Scope",
  "@value" : "local"
}

T

{
  "@type" : "g:T",
  "@value" : "label"
}

TextP

{
  "@type" : "g:TextP",
  "@value" : {
    "predicate" : "containing",
    "value" : "ark"
  }
}

TraversalMetrics

{
  "@type" : "g:TraversalMetrics",
  "@value" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "dur", {
      "@type" : "g:Double",
      "@value" : 0.004
    }, "metrics", {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Metrics",
        "@value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Map",
          "@value" : [ "dur", {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 100.0
          }, "counts", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 4
            }, "elementCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 4
            } ]
          }, "name", "TinkerGraphStep(vertex,[~label.eq(person)])", "annotations", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
              "@type" : "g:Double",
              "@value" : 25.0
            } ]
          }, "id", "7.0.0()" ]
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Metrics",
        "@value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Map",
          "@value" : [ "dur", {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 100.0
          }, "counts", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 13
            }, "elementCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 13
            } ]
          }, "name", "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)", "annotations", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
              "@type" : "g:Double",
              "@value" : 25.0
            } ]
          }, "id", "2.0.0()" ]
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Metrics",
        "@value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Map",
          "@value" : [ "dur", {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 100.0
          }, "counts", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 7
            }, "elementCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 7
            } ]
          }, "name", "VertexStep(OUT,vertex)", "annotations", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
              "@type" : "g:Double",
              "@value" : 25.0
            } ]
          }, "id", "3.0.0()" ]
        }
      }, {
        "@type" : "g:Metrics",
        "@value" : {
          "@type" : "g:Map",
          "@value" : [ "dur", {
            "@type" : "g:Double",
            "@value" : 100.0
          }, "counts", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "traverserCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 1
            }, "elementCount", {
              "@type" : "g:Int64",
              "@value" : 1
            } ]
          }, "name", "TreeStep", "annotations", {
            "@type" : "g:Map",
            "@value" : [ "percentDur", {
              "@type" : "g:Double",
              "@value" : 25.0
            } ]
          }, "id", "4.0.0()" ]
        }
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

Traverser

{
  "@type" : "g:Traverser",
  "@value" : {
    "bulk" : {
      "@type" : "g:Int64",
      "@value" : 1
    },
    "value" : {
      "@type" : "g:Vertex",
      "@value" : {
        "id" : {
          "@type" : "g:Int32",
          "@value" : 1
        },
        "label" : "person",
        "properties" : {
          "name" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 0
              },
              "value" : "marko",
              "label" : "name"
            }
          } ],
          "location" : [ {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 6
              },
              "value" : "san diego",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 1997
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 7
              },
              "value" : "santa cruz",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2001
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 8
              },
              "value" : "brussels",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2004
                },
                "endTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          }, {
            "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
            "@value" : {
              "id" : {
                "@type" : "g:Int64",
                "@value" : 9
              },
              "value" : "santa fe",
              "label" : "location",
              "properties" : {
                "startTime" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int32",
                  "@value" : 2005
                }
              }
            }
          } ]
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

RequestMessage

Authentication Response

The following RequestMessage is an example of the response that should be made to a SASL-based authentication challenge.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "authentication",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "saslMechanism", "PLAIN", "sasl", "AHN0ZXBocGhlbgBwYXNzd29yZA==" ]
  }
}

Session Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple session request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "gremlin", "g.V(x)", "language", "gremlin-groovy", "session", {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    }, "bindings", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "x", {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

Session Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a session request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "gremlin", "social.V(x)", "language", "gremlin-groovy", "aliases", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "g", "social" ]
    }, "session", {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    }, "bindings", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "x", {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

Session Close

The following RequestMessage is an example of a request to close a session.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "close",
  "processor" : "session",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "session", {
      "@type" : "g:UUID",
      "@value" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786"
    } ]
  }
}

Sessionless Eval

The following RequestMessage is an example of a simple sessionless request for a script evaluation with parameters.

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "gremlin", "g.V(x)", "language", "gremlin-groovy", "bindings", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "x", {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

Sessionless Eval Aliased

The following RequestMessage is an example of a sessionless request for a script evaluation with an alias that binds the TraversalSource of "g" to "social".

{
  "requestId" : "cb682578-9d92-4499-9ebc-5c6aa73c5397",
  "op" : "eval",
  "processor" : "",
  "args" : {
    "@type" : "g:Map",
    "@value" : [ "gremlin", "social.V(x)", "language", "gremlin-groovy", "aliases", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "g", "social" ]
    }, "bindings", {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ "x", {
        "@type" : "g:Int32",
        "@value" : 1
      } ]
    } ]
  }
}

ResponseMessage

Authentication Challenge

When authentication is enabled, an initial request to the server will result in an authentication challenge. The typical response message will appear as follows, but handling it could be different depending on the SASL implementation (e.g. multiple challenges may be requested in some cases, but not in the default provided by Gremlin Server).

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 407,
    "attributes" : {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ ]
    }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : null,
    "meta" : {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ ]
    }
  }
}

Standard Result

The following ResponseMessage is a typical example of the typical successful response Gremlin Server will return when returning results from a script.

{
  "requestId" : "41d2e28a-20a4-4ab0-b379-d810dede3786",
  "status" : {
    "message" : "",
    "code" : 200,
    "attributes" : {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ ]
    }
  },
  "result" : {
    "data" : {
      "@type" : "g:List",
      "@value" : [ {
        "@type" : "g:Vertex",
        "@value" : {
          "id" : {
            "@type" : "g:Int32",
            "@value" : 1
          },
          "label" : "person",
          "properties" : {
            "name" : [ {
              "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int64",
                  "@value" : 0
                },
                "value" : "marko",
                "label" : "name"
              }
            } ],
            "location" : [ {
              "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int64",
                  "@value" : 6
                },
                "value" : "san diego",
                "label" : "location",
                "properties" : {
                  "startTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 1997
                  },
                  "endTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2001
                  }
                }
              }
            }, {
              "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int64",
                  "@value" : 7
                },
                "value" : "santa cruz",
                "label" : "location",
                "properties" : {
                  "startTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2001
                  },
                  "endTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2004
                  }
                }
              }
            }, {
              "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int64",
                  "@value" : 8
                },
                "value" : "brussels",
                "label" : "location",
                "properties" : {
                  "startTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2004
                  },
                  "endTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2005
                  }
                }
              }
            }, {
              "@type" : "g:VertexProperty",
              "@value" : {
                "id" : {
                  "@type" : "g:Int64",
                  "@value" : 9
                },
                "value" : "santa fe",
                "label" : "location",
                "properties" : {
                  "startTime" : {
                    "@type" : "g:Int32",
                    "@value" : 2005
                  }
                }
              }
            } ]
          }
        }
      } ]
    },
    "meta" : {
      "@type" : "g:Map",
      "@value" : [ ]
    }
  }
}

Extended

Note that the "extended" types require the addition of the separate GraphSONXModuleV3d0 module as follows:

mapper = GraphSONMapper.build().
                        typeInfo(TypeInfo.PARTIAL_TYPES).
                        addCustomModule(GraphSONXModuleV3d0.build().create(false)).
                        version(GraphSONVersion.V3_0).create().createMapper()

BigDecimal

{
  "@type" : "gx:BigDecimal",
  "@value" : 123456789987654321123456789987654321
}

BigInteger

{
  "@type" : "gx:BigInteger",
  "@value" : 123456789987654321123456789987654321
}

Byte

{
  "@type" : "gx:Byte",
  "@value" : 1
}

ByteBuffer

{
  "@type" : "gx:ByteBuffer",
  "@value" : "c29tZSBieXRlcyBmb3IgeW91"
}

Char

{
  "@type" : "gx:Char",
  "@value" : "x"
}

Duration

The following example is a Duration of five days.

{
  "@type" : "gx:Duration",
  "@value" : "PT120H"
}

InetAddress

{
  "@type" : "gx:InetAddress",
  "@value" : "localhost"
}

Instant

{
  "@type" : "gx:Instant",
  "@value" : "2016-12-14T16:39:19.349Z"
}

LocalDate

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalDate",
  "@value" : "2016-01-01"
}

LocalDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalDateTime",
  "@value" : "2016-01-01T12:30"
}

LocalTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:LocalTime",
  "@value" : "12:30:45"
}

MonthDay

{
  "@type" : "gx:MonthDay",
  "@value" : "--01-01"
}

OffsetDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:OffsetDateTime",
  "@value" : "2007-12-03T10:15:30+01:00"
}

OffsetTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:OffsetTime",
  "@value" : "10:15:30+01:00"
}

Period

The following example is a Period of one year, six months and fifteen days.

{
  "@type" : "gx:Period",
  "@value" : "P1Y6M15D"
}

Short

{
  "@type" : "gx:Int16",
  "@value" : 100
}

Year

The following example is of the Year "2016".

{
  "@type" : "gx:Year",
  "@value" : "2016"
}

YearMonth

The following example is a YearMonth of "June 2016"

{
  "@type" : "gx:YearMonth",
  "@value" : "2016-06"
}

ZonedDateTime

{
  "@type" : "gx:ZonedDateTime",
  "@value" : "2016-12-23T12:12:24.000000036+02:00[GMT+02:00]"
}

ZoneOffset

The following example is a ZoneOffset of three hours, six minutes, and nine seconds.

{
  "@type" : "gx:ZoneOffset",
  "@value" : "+03:06:09"
}

Gryo

gremlin kryo Gryo uses the popular Kryo library to handle binary serialization for the JVM. There currently aren’t any Kryo implementations in other languages so the binding of this format to the JVM is a bit of a limitation, but if building a system on the JVM the use of Gryo over other serialization format should yield smaller data sizes than other formats like GraphSON or GraphML, improved serialization speed, as well as better support for the various Java data types that might not be supported otherwise.

Gryo is useful both as a "graph" serialization format and as a generalized serialization format that can read or write any object. This characteristic makes it ideal for use in Gremlin Server, which is designed to return arbitrary results of varying types.

It is unlikely that Gryo users will try to consume or produce Gryo without using TinkerPop and Kryo classes to help do it. Attempting to read or write a byte stream of Gryo without those tools would be challenging, so the depths of what the Gryo format looks like in a byte-by-byte perspective will not be discussed here. It is enough to know that TinkerPop has Kryo-based serializers for certain classes that it supports and that the bytes written or read must be Kryo compliant.

One of the key aspects of Gryo is that, by default, it requires that all types expected to be used to be registered with the GryoMapper. There are two ways to do that:

  • On the GryoMapper.Builder, use the addCustom methods. These methods allow registration of single classes with an optional custom serializer.

  • Add a custom IoRegistry implementation with the addRegistry method on GryoMapper.Builder. The IoRegistry contains registrations that will be supplied to the GryoMapper. There is additional documentation on how this works in the provider documentation.

When using addCustom or addRegistry, it is important to remember that the order in which those methods are called is important. The registrations get numeric "registration ids" and their order must match if the the Gryo is expected to be compatible. Calls to addCustom will be applied first, prior to calls to addRegistry (which internally call addCustom).

It is possible to disable registration by setting registrationRequired on the GryoMapper.Builder to false, but Gryo is less efficient with this feature is turned off.

Until TinkerPop 3.3.0 there has only been one version of Gryo in 1.0 and the format for that version has generally expanded as new releases of TinkerPop have been produced. "Expansion" has generally meant that new types have come to be supported over time. The addition of new types means that while Gryo has remained at 1.0, older releases that produced Gryo files will not be compatible with newer TinkerPop releases if the newer types are utilized. On the flip side, newer release of TinkerPop are fully backward compatible with Gryo produced on older versions of TinkerPop.

As of TinkerPop 3.3.0, there is now a new version of Gryo in 3.0 that is only partially compatible with 1.0. Attempts to use 3.0 serializers with 1.0 serializers will likely lead to failure. For best results, users should always utilize the same version of TinkerPop on the client as on the server.

Both versions of Gryo support all the types defined by GraphSON as well as others that are bound more specifically to the JVM. The GryoVersion class contains a listing of all the default registered classes.

GraphBinary

GraphBinary is a binary serialization format suitable for object trees, designed to reduce serialization overhead on both the client and the server, as well as limiting the size of the payload that is transmitted over the wire.

It describes arbitrary object graphs with a fully-qualified format:

{type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}

Where:

  • {type_code} is a single unsigned byte representing the type number.

  • {type_info} is an optional sequence of bytes providing additional information of the type represented. This is specially useful for representing complex and custom types.

  • {value_flag} is a single byte providing information about the value. Flags have the following meaning:

    • 0x01 The value is null. When this flag is set, no bytes for {value} will be provided.

  • {value} is a sequence of bytes which content is determined by the type.

All encodings are big-endian.

Quick examples, using hexadecimal notation to represent each byte:

  • 01 00 00 00 00 01: a 32-bit integer number, that represents the decimal number 1. It’s composed by the type_code 0x01, and empty flag value 0x00 and four bytes to describe the value.

  • 01 00 00 00 00 ff: a 32-bit integer, representing the number 256.

  • 01 01: a null value for a 32-bit integer. It’s composed by the type_code 0x01, and a null flag value 0x01.

  • 02 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01: a 64-bit integer number 1. It’s composed by the type_code 0x02, empty flags and eight bytes to describe the value.

Version 1.0

Forward Compatibility

The serialization format supports new types being added without the need to introduce a new version.

Changes to existing types require new revision.

Data Type Codes

Core Data Types

  • 0x01: Int

  • 0x02: Long

  • 0x03: String

  • 0x04: Date

  • 0x05: Timestamp

  • 0x06: Class

  • 0x07: Double

  • 0x08: Float

  • 0x09: List

  • 0x0a: Map

  • 0x0b: Set

  • 0x0c: UUID

  • 0x0d: Edge

  • 0x0e: Path

  • 0x0f: Property

  • 0x10: TinkerGraph

  • 0x11: Vertex

  • 0x12: VertexProperty

  • 0x13: Barrier

  • 0x14: Binding

  • 0x15: Bytecode

  • 0x16: Cardinality

  • 0x17: Column

  • 0x18: Direction

  • 0x19: Operator

  • 0x1a: Order

  • 0x1b: Pick

  • 0x1c: Pop

  • 0x1d: Lambda

  • 0x1e: P

  • 0x1f: Scope

  • 0x20: T

  • 0x21: Traverser

  • 0x22: BigDecimal

  • 0x23: BigInteger

  • 0x24: Byte

  • 0x25: ByteBuffer

  • 0x26: Short

  • 0x27: Boolean

  • 0x28: TextP

  • 0x29: TraversalStrategy

  • 0x2a: BulkSet

  • 0x2b: Tree

  • 0x2c: Metrics

  • 0x2d: TraversalMetrics

  • 0xfe: Unspecified null object

  • 0x00: Custom

Extended Types

  • 0x80: Char

  • 0x81: Duration

  • 0x82: InetAddress

  • 0x83: Instant

  • 0x84: LocalDate

  • 0x85: LocalDateTime

  • 0x86: LocalTime

  • 0x87: MonthDay

  • 0x88: OffsetDateTime

  • 0x89: OffsetTime

  • 0x8a: Period

  • 0x8b: Year

  • 0x8c: YearMonth

  • 0x8d: ZonedDateTime

  • 0x8e: ZoneOffset

Null handling

The serialization format defines two ways to represent null values:

  • Unspecified null object

  • Fully-qualified null

When a parent type can contain any subtype e.g., a object collection, a null value must be represented using the "Unspecified Null Object" type code and the null value flag.

In contrast, when the parent type contains a type parameter that must be specified, a null value is represented using a fully-qualified object using the appropriate type code and type information.

Data Type Formats

Int

Format: 4-byte two’s complement integer.

Example values:

  • 00 00 00 01: 32-bit integer number 1.

  • 00 00 01 01: 32-bit integer number 256.

  • ff ff ff ff: 32-bit integer number -1.

  • ff ff ff fe: 32-bit integer number -2.

Long

Format: 4-byte two’s complement integer.

Example values

  • 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 01: 64-bit integer number 1.

  • ff ff ff ff ff ff ff fe: 64-bit integer number -2.

String

Format: {length}{text_value}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int describing the byte length of the text. Length is a positive number or zero to represent the empty string.

  • {text_value} is a sequence of bytes representing the string value in UTF8 encoding.

Example values

  • 00 00 00 03 61 62 63: the string 'abc'.

  • 00 00 00 04 61 62 63 64: the string 'abcd'.

  • 00 00 00 00: the empty string ''.

Date

Format: An 8-byte two’s complement signed integer representing a millisecond-precision offset from the unix epoch.

Example values

  • 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00: The moment in time 1970-01-01T00:00:00.000Z.

  • ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff: The moment in time 1969-12-31T23:59:59.999Z.

Timestamp

Format: The same as Date.

Class

Format: A String containing the fqcn.

Double

Format: 8 bytes representing IEEE 754 double-precision binary floating-point format.

Example values

  • 3f f0 00 00 00 00 00 00: Double 1

  • 3f 70 00 00 00 00 00 00: Double 0.00390625

  • 3f b9 99 99 99 99 99 9a: Double 0.1

Float

Format: 4 bytes representing IEEE 754 single-precision binary floating-point format.

Example values

  • 3f 80 00 00: Float 1

  • 3e c0 00 00: Float 0.375

List

An ordered collection of items.

Format: {length}{item_0}…​{item_n}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int describing the length of the collection.

  • {item_0}…​{item_n} are the items of the list. {item_i} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

Set

A collection that contains no duplicate elements.

Format: Same as List.

Map

A dictionary of keys to values.

Format: {length}{item_0}…​{item_n}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int describing the length of the map.

  • {item_0}…​{item_n} are the items of the map. {item_i} is sequence of 2 fully qualified typed values one representing the key and the following representing the value, each composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

UUID

A 128-bit universally unique identifier.

Format: 16 bytes representing the uuid.

Example

  • 00 11 22 33 44 55 66 77 88 99 aa bb cc dd ee ff: Uuid 00112233-4455-6677-8899-aabbccddeeff.

Edge

Format: {id}{label}{inVId}{inVLabel}{outVId}{outVLabel}{parent}{properties}

Where:

  • {id} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {label} is a String value.

  • {inVId} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {inVLabel} is a String value.

  • {outVId} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {outVLabel} is a String value.

  • {parent} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which contains the parent Vertex. Note that as TinkerPop currently send "references" only, this value will always be null.

  • {properties} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which contains the properties for the edge. Note that as TinkerPop currently send "references" only this value will always be null.

Path

Format: {labels}{objects}

Where:

  • {labels} is a List in which each item is a Set of String.

  • {objects} is a List of fully qualified typed values.

Property

Format: {key}{value}{parent}

Where:

  • {key} is a String value.

  • {value} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {parent} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which is either an Edge or VertexProperty. Note that as TinkerPop currently sends "references" only this value will always be null.

Graph

A collection of vertices and edges. Note that while similar the vertex/edge formats here hold some differences as compared to the Vertex and Edge formats used for standard serialization/deserialiation of a single graph element.

Format: {vlength}{vertex_0}…​{vertex_n}{elength}{edge_0}…​{edge_n}

Where:

  • {vlength} is an Int describing the number of vertices.

  • {vertex_0}…​{vertex_n} are vertices as described below.

  • {elength} is an Int describing the number of edges.

  • {edge_0}…​{edge_n} are edges as described below.

Vertex Format: {id}{label}{plength}{property_0}…​{property_n}

  • {id} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {label} is a String value.

  • {plength} is an Int describing the number of properties on the vertex.

  • {property_0}…​{property_n} are the vertex properties consisting of {id}{label}{value}{parent}{properties} as defined in VertexProperty where the {parent} is always null and {properties} is a List of Property objects.

Edge Format: {id}{label}{inVId}{inVLabel}{outVId}{outVLabel}{parent}{properties}

Where:

  • {id} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {label} is a String value.

  • {inVId} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {inVLabel} is always null.

  • {outVId} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {outVLabel} is always null.

  • {parent} is always null.

  • {properties} is a List of Property objects.

Vertex

Format: {id}{label}{properties}

Where:

  • {id} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {label} is a String value.

  • {properties} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which contains properties. Note that as TinkerPop currently send "references" only, this value will always be null.

VertexProperty

Format: {id}{label}{value}{parent}{properties}

Where:

  • {id} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {label} is a String value.

  • {value} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

  • {parent} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which contains the parent Vertex. Note that as TinkerPop currently send "references" only, this value will always be null.

  • {properties} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} which contains properties. Note that as TinkerPop currently send "references" only, this value will always be null.

Barrier

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Binding

Format: {key}{value}

Where:

  • {key} is a String value.

  • {value} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

Bytecode

Format: {steps_length}{step_0}…​{step_n}{sources_length}{source_0}…​{source_n}

Where:

  • {steps_length} is an Int value describing the amount of steps.

  • {step_i} is composed of {name}{values_length}{value_0}…​{value_n}, where:

    • {name} is a String.

    • {values_length} is an Int describing the amount values.

    • {value_i} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} describing the step argument.

  • {sources_length} is an Int value describing the amount of source instructions.

  • {source_i} is composed of {name}{values_length}{value_0}…​{value_n}, where:

    • {name} is a String.

    • {values_length} is an Int describing the amount values.

    • {value_i} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

Cardinality

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Column

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Direction

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Operator

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Order

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Pick

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Pop

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Lambda

Format: {language}{script}{arguments_length} Where:

  • {language} is a String.

  • {script} is a String.

  • {arguments_length} is an Int.

P

Format: {name}{values_length}{value_0}…​{value_n}

Where:

  • {name} is a String.

  • {values_length} is an Int describing the amount values.

  • {value_i} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

Scope

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

T

Format: a single String representing the enum value.

Traverser

Format: {bulk}{value}

Where:

  • {bulk} is an Int.

  • {value} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

BigDecimal

Represents an arbitrary-precision signed decimal number, consisting of an arbitrary precision integer unscaled value and a 32-bit integer scale.

Format: {scale}{unscaled_value}

Where:

  • {scale} is an Int.

  • {unscaled_value} is a BigInteger.

BigInteger

A variable-length two’s complement encoding of a signed integer.

Format: {length}{value}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int.

  • {value} is the two’s complement of the BigInteger.

Example values of the two’s complement {value}:

  • 00: Integer 0.

  • 01: Integer 1.

  • 127: Integer 7f.

  • 00 80: Integer 128.

  • ff: Integer -1.

  • 80: Integer -128.

  • ff 7f: Integer -129.

Byte

An unsigned 8-bit integer.

ByteBuffer

Format: {length}{value}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int representing the amount of bytes contained in the value.

  • {value} sequence of bytes.

Short

Format: 2-byte two’s complement integer.

Boolean

Format: A single byte containing the value 0x01 when it’s true and 0 otherwise.

TextP

Format: {predicate}{values_length}{value_0}…​{value_n}

Where:

  • {name} is a String.

  • {values_length} is an Int describing the amount values.

  • {value_i} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

TraversalStrategy

Format: {strategy_class}{configuration}

Where:

  • {strategy_class} is a Class that is of type TraversalStrategy.

  • {configuration} is a Map of data used to configure the strategy that will be given to a TraversalStrategy create(Configuration) method.

BulkSet

Format: {length}{item_0}…​{item_n}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int describing the length of the BulkSet.

  • {item_0}…​{item_n} are the items of the BulkSet. {item_i} is a sequence of a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value} followed by the "bulk" which is a Long value.

If the implementing language does not have a BulkSet object to deserialize into, this format can be coerced to a List and still be considered compliant with Gremlin. Simply "expand the bulk" by adding the item to the List the number of times specified by the bulk.

Tree

Format: {length}{item_0}…​{item_n}

Where:

  • {length} is an Int describing the amount of items.

  • {item_0}…​{item_n} are the items of the Tree. {item_i} is composed of a {key} which is a fully-qualified typed value followed by a {Tree}.

Metrics

Format: {id}{name}{duration}{counts}{annotations}{nested_metrics}

Where:

  • {id} is a String representing the identifier.

  • {name} is a String representing the name.

  • {duration} is a Long describing the duration in nanoseconds.

  • {counts} is a Map composed by String keys and Long values.

  • {annotations} is a Map composed by String keys and a value of any type.

  • {nested_metrics} is a List composed by Metrics items.

TraversalMetrics

Format: {duration}{metrics}

Where:

  • {duration} is a Long describing the duration in nanoseconds.

  • {metrics} is a List composed by Metrics items.

Custom

A custom type, represented as a blob value.

Type Info: {name}{custom_type_info}

Where:

  • {name} is a String containing the implementation specific text identifier of the custom type.

  • {custom_type_info} is a ByteBuffer representing the additional type information, specially useful for complex custom types.

Value format: {blob}

Where:

  • {blob} is a ByteBuffer.

Unspecified Null Object

A null value for an unspecified Object value.

It’s represented using the null {value_flag} set and no sequence of bytes.

Char

Format: one to four bytes representing a single UTF8 char, according to the Unicode standard.

For characters 0x00-0x7F, UTF-8 encodes the character as a single byte.

For characters 0x80-0x07FF, UTF-8 uses 2 bytes: the first byte is binary 110 followed by the 5 high bits of the character, while the second byte is binary 10 followed by the 6 low bits of the character.

The 3 and 4-byte encodings are similar to the 2-byte encoding, except that the first byte of the 3-byte encoding starts with 1110 and the first byte of the 4-byte encoding starts with 11110.

Example values (hex bytes)

  • 97: Character 'a'.

  • c2 a2: Character '¢'.

  • e2 82 ac: Character '€'

Duration

A time-based amount of time.

Format: {seconds}{nanos}

Where:

  • {seconds} is a Long.

  • {nanos} is an Int.

InetAddress

Format: Same as ByteBuffer, having only 4 byte or 16 byte sequences allowed.

Instant

An instantaneous point on the time-line.

Format: {seconds}{nanos}

Where:

  • {seconds} is a Long.

  • {nanos} is an Int.

LocalDate

A date without a time-zone in the ISO-8601 calendar system.

Format: {year}{month}{day}

Where:

  • {year} is an Int from -999,999,999 to 999,999,999.

  • {month} is a Byte to represent the month, from 1 (January) to 12 (December)

  • {day} is a Byte from 1 to 31.

LocalDateTime

Format: {date}{time}

Where:

  • {date} is LocalDate.

  • {time} is a LocalTime.

LocalTime

A time without a time-zone in the ISO-8601 calendar system.

Format: An 8 byte two’s complement long representing nanoseconds since midnight.

Valid values are in the range 0 to 86399999999999

MonthDay

A month-day in the ISO-8601 calendar system.

Format: {month}{day}

Where:

  • {month} is Byte value from 1 to 12.

  • {day} is Byte value from 1 to 31.

OffsetDateTime

A date-time with an offset from UTC/Greenwich in the ISO-8601 calendar system, such as 2007-12-03T10:15:30+01:00.

Format: {local_date_time}{offset}

Where:

  • {local_date_time} is LocalDateTime.

  • {offset} is ZoneOffset.

OffsetTime

A time with an offset from UTC/Greenwich in the ISO-8601 calendar system, such as 10:15:30+01:00.

Format: {local_time}{offset}

Where:

  • {local_time} is LocalTime.

  • {offset} is ZoneOffset.

Period

A date-based amount of time in the ISO-8601 calendar system, such as '2 years, 3 months and 4 days'.

Format: {years}{month}{days}

Where:

{years}, {month} and {days} are Int values.

Year

A year in the ISO-8601 calendar system, such as 2018.

Format: An Int representing the years.

YearMonth

A year-month in the ISO-8601 calendar system, such as 2007-12.

Format: {year}{month}

Where:

  • {year} is an Int.

  • {month} is a Byte from 1 to 12.

ZonedDateTime

A date-time with a time-zone in the ISO-8601 calendar system.

Format: {local_date_time}{zone_offset}

Where:

  • {local_date_time} is LocalDateTime.

  • {zone_offset} is a ZoneOffset.

ZoneOffset

A time-zone offset from Greenwich/UTC, such as +02:00.

Format: An Int representing total zone offset in seconds.

Request and Response Messages

Request and response messages are special container types used to represent messages from client to the server and the other way around. These messages are independent from the transport layer.

Request Message

Represents a message from the client to the server.

Format: {version}{request_id}{op}{processor}{args}

Where:

  • {version} is a Byte representing the specification version, with the most significant bit set to one. For this version of the format, the value expected is 0x81 (10000001).

  • {request_id} is a UUID.

  • {op} is a String.

  • {processor} is a String.

  • {args} is a Map.

The total length is not part of the message as the transport layer will provide it. For example: WebSockets, as a framing protocol, defines payload length.

Response Message

Format: {version}{request_id}{status_code}{status_message}{status_attributes}{result_meta}{result_data}

Where:

  • {version} is a Byte representing the protocol version, with the most significant bit set to one. For this version of the protocol, the value expected is 0x81 (10000001).

  • {request_id} is a nullable UUID.

  • {status_code} is an Int.

  • {status_message} is a nullable String.

  • {status_attributes} is a Map.

  • {result_meta} is a Map.

  • {result_data} is a fully qualified typed value composed of {type_code}{type_info}{value_flag}{value}.

The total length is not part of the message as the transport layer will provide it.